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Full text of "Wild Flowers of the Holy Land"

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WILD FLOWERS 



OP 



THE HOLY LAND. 



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WILD FLOWERS 



OF 



THE HOLY LAND. 



FIFTY-FOUR PLATES PRINTED IN COLOURS, DRAWN AND PAINTED 

AFTER NATURE. 



BY 



MRS. HANNAH ZELLER, 

NAZARETH. 



WITH A PREFACE BT 

H. B. TRISTRAM, M.A., LL.D., E.R.S., 

CAKOM OF DUBHAX, 

AND AN INTRODUCTION BT 

EDWARD ATKINSON, Esq., F.L.S., E.Z.S. 



SbcorCts E&ition. 



^LONDON : 
JAMES NISBET AND CO., 21 BERNERS STREET, W. 

1876. 



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^tft^HH^ftfr- 







LONDON: 

MITCHELL AND HUGHES, PRINTERS, 

WARDOUR STREET, W. 



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Preface. 



I have been asked to commend the work of my old and dear friend, 
Mrs. Zeller, of Nazareth, to the public of this Bible-loving land. I 
have the less hesitation in acceding to her wish, as our mutual friend, 
Mr. Edward Atkinson, not only well acquainted with the sacred soil 
by long residence there, but also an accomplished botanist, has kindly 
provided an Introduction. I have promised Mrs. Zeller a welcome 
for her drawings to many an English table. The flowers of Palestine 
are the chief natural attractions of the country, and what traveller 
returns without many a floral souvenir pressed between the leaves of 
Bible or guide-book ! But precious as the relics are, they lose the 
bright fresh hues faithfully depicted here. The fifty-four species of 
flowers represented on these plates are but a sample of the varied 
Flora of that country, rich beyond most others in botanical rarities. 
My herbarium contains thirteen hundred Palestine species, a number 
which might be considerably increased. 

The aim of Mrs. Zeller has been, not to select the most 
gorgeous or the rarest, but to give a fair representation, if I may so 
speak, of the every-day Elora of the Holy Land. The gorgeous 
asclepiads, the gigantic orobanches, the magnificent ipomeas of the 
Jordan valley she has passed by, in order to cull those familiar flowers 
which carpet the soil or fringe the wayside in every plain and dell. 



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VI PREFACE. 

But the volume will not be the less welcome, because it contains many 
an English weed, as well as the familiar denizens of our gardens. 
The anemone, the gladiolus, or the hollyhock, will not lose their place 
in our regard when we trace them to their cradle, nor will the fumitory, 
the speedwell, and the buglos be less interesting ornaments of our 
hedgerows, because they extend their range beyond the Eastern 
Mediterranean. 

For the fidelity and the accuracy of Mrs. Zeller's drawing and 
colouring it is scarcely necessary for me to vouch. But the chief 
interest of the plates will lie in the fact that they represent to us the 
very flowers on which our Lord's eye must so often have rested in 
childhood, and which provided Him with illustrations for His teaching 
and parables. They are the flowers not of Judaea, but of Galilee, 
culled on the hills round Nazareth, and in the plain of Gennesareth, 
by the wife of our indefatigable Missionary at Nazareth, and who has 
for so many years been the zealous helper in his work. 

H. B. Tristram. 



College, Durham, 

12th September, 1875. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The Holy Land having been my home for more than four years, while 
botany has been a hobby with me, more or less, for thirty — the 
charmingly faithful portraits of so many of the field flowers of 
Palestine could not but kindle, as they passed under review, many 
pleasant memories and some latent enthusiasm for the Mora of " those 
holy fields." 

It is a common boast of English travellers that no country 
possesses so large a number of beautiful wild flowers and sweet- 
scented blossoms as their own. Perhaps, as regards the latter, there 
may be some truth in the vaunt ; and still the rose, hawthorn, wall- 
flower, and lily of the valley, of our woods and hedgerows, though 
more abundant, cannot rival in sweetness the scented clematis, yellow 
jasmine, lavender, and narcissus of the Galilean hills. Nay, even the 
arid wilderness of Judaea is frequently rendered odorous by the delicate 
perfume of the sunt (acacia vera), the " shittim-tree " of Holy Scrip- 
ture ; not forgetting the true mignonette, a wanderer from Egypt. 

But for mere colour, I think there can be no doubt England 
must yield the palm to Syria. In a single hour's stroll on a spring 
morning, whether in the environs of Jerusalem, on the slopes around 
Nazareth, in the fields of Bethlehem, on the banks of Jordan, 



Or where Gennesaret's wave 



Delights the flowers to lave, 
That o'er her western slope breathe airs of balm," 

I could at any time fill my hand with a bouquet of flowers as rich 
in colour, and as varied in form, as one could gather at midsummer 



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Till INTRODUCTION. 

in a well-kept garden at home. The remembrance of my wanderings 
in that country, so differently regarded, according to the colour of the 
traveller's mind, is distinctly and indelibly stamped on my mental 
retina ; for, whether travelling for mere pleasure, or on a journey of 
duty, my eye was, as a matter of habit, accustomed to see everything, 
from the humble flower beneath my horse's feet to the snow-clad 
summit of Hermon. 

In this way I learned to associate individual plants with the 
localities where I have seen them flowering; and thus, in looking 
through the following pages — several of which it was once my 
privilege to see under the skilful pencil of my old friend, Mrs. Zeller, 
in her own house at Nazareth — I have vividly brought before me the 
spot where the gaudy tulip (T. gesneriana) grew abundantly on the 
hill-side between Nazareth and the Valley of Jezreel ; the hollyhock 
(Althaa lavaterifolia) at Magdala; the apple of Sodom (Solatium 
sanctum) near Jericho ; the blue lupin (Z. pilosus) on the Mount of 
Beatitudes, near the Horns of Hattin ; the elegant storax-tree, with its 
burden of snow-clad bell flowers and dark green leaves with silvered 
undersides, forming a relief to the sturdy oaks in the Forest of Carmel ; 
the delicate little rock stock (Bicotia lunaria) with its pink stars, almost 
smothered among the pathless thickets of Capernaum; and the massive 
acanthus (A. dioscoridis) revelling among ruins in the Valley of Elah. 

The scarcity of trees in the Holy Land deprive it of all those 
shade-loving flowers and ferns which add such a charm to our wood- 
lands at home. But no sooner have the heavy rains of January and 
February fallen, than the soil of the plains and valleys, baked hard by 
eight months of exposure to a cloudless sky, burst forth into a sudden 
green, whose vividness seems all the greater by contrast with their 
previous bareness. A thousand brilliant flowers, chiefly of bulbous 
plants, convert the uniform drab-coloured livery of the country, during 
its long dry season, into a gaudy carpet as varied as the patterns of a 
kaleidoscope. 

Crocus, yellow and white and blue; iris, of intense blue; 



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INTEODUCTION. IX 

anemone, scarlet, pink, blue, and white; grape hyacinth, of royal 
purple ; dark-red gladiolus and orange ranunculus ; the lovely cycla- 
men with its cherry-coloured eye and its marble leaves; and the 
greenish white star of Bethlehem, — appear like magic, as if shaken 
out of Flora's lap. Meanwhile the hill slopes are frequently decorated, 
(notably those of the Mount of Olives), by the almond with its sheet 
of pink, and other flowering shrubs. 

" Soon o'er their heads blithe April airs shall sing, 
A thousand wild-flowers round them shall unfold, 
The green buds glisten in the dews of spring, 
And all be vernal rapture as of old." — Keble. 

Later in the season the cistus, or rock-rose (C. creticus and 
C. salviafolius) sheds its fugitive fairy petals over the mountain-sides, 
varied by the spinous burnet (Poteritm spinovum), lavender, Greek 
hyssop, and marjoram : whilst the plains are decked with blue, yellow, 
and rose-coloured flax, scarlet poppies, salvias, vetches, and many 
composite plants. 

When most other flowers have faded; when the corn-fields 
have been reaped, and the grapes are ready for vintage, there are still 
a few lingerers that seem to reserve their charms until all else is 
withered, and 

" Eemind us of summer, when summer is gone." 

Of such is the handsome ever-green oleander, which affects the water- 
side where water is to be had, but often thrives in the dried-up bed 
of a mountain stream. Thus Warburton poetically says:* "The 
Ilyssus exists no longer, but a torrent-like line of oleanders seems 
still to fill its course with verdant waves and rosy foam." The Vitex 
agnu8'Costus, another ornamental flowering shrub with an aromatic 
fragrance, is found in similar situations. At the same season, in 
shaded nooks, and in the chinks of overhanging rock, the glossy leaves 
and strong-scented tufts of pendant white flowers of the Schubertia 

* The Crescent and the Cross. 

b 



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X INTRODUCTION. 

multiflora, and several other, but less striking, asclepiads, peep out. 
The straggling stems and changeful chameleon flowers of the European 
plumbago fill up many a waste place, with store of showy star-thistles, 
purple and yellow {Centcmrea calcitrapa and C. verutum), and the 
white and crimson everlastings. Almost every ruin or ancient build- 
ing we pass is more or less mantled with the graceful caper-plant 
(Capparis spinosa), which strikes its roots firmly between the stones, 
and, at this season, spangles its thorny sprays with its handsome 
tassel-like blossoms and edible buds. This plant is identified by 
Schubert, Tristram, and others, as the " hyssop " of the Pentateuch, 
which, as Solomon saith, " groweth out of the wall." 

The last of these has vanished, and two or three months of 
relentless autumn suns have left no vestige of green or colour on the 
plains, when towards the end of October a few scattered showers — the 
early rain — soon deck the fields with pink and purple colchicums, or 
meadow-saffron — the promise and antepast of spring's resurrection. 

There is, however, another aspect in which the flowers of 
Palestine claim a special interest, which attaches to those of no other 
land. So many instances occur in Holy Writ of trees and plants 
associated with particular scenes and localities, that, where we find 
them still flourishing on those very spots, they are silent witnesses 
to the truth of Scripture. 

Examples of this abound on every side. The cedars of 
Lebanon and the oaks of Sashan (Isa. ii. 13); the olive trees of 
Gethsemane and Olivet — all of which exist in their lineal descendants 
at the present day, are too familiar to need more than a passing 
notice. The sycomore tree, formerly so abundant, is now by no 
means common, but, says Dr. Tristram, " there are still a few gnarled 
and aged sycomores at ancient Jericho/' where it afforded Zaccheus 
(Luke xix. 4) a vantage point for seeing and intercepting the 
Saviour. A notable instance, which came under my own observation, 
is the bramble (Bubus scmctus), which, though common in Lebanon, 
occurs in only a few well- watered places in Lower Palestine, and the 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 

first spot in which I met with it was at Nablous (Shechem) at the 
foot of Mount Ebal, where it supplied Jotham with a figure for his 
parable (Judges ix. 14, 15). Again, the mustard, so often alluded to 
in our Lord's teaching by the shores of the Lake of Tiberias, still 
forms a prominent feature on its northern banks, and from its rank 
shrubby growth, often higher than the traveller's head, renders loco- 
motion difficult. This plant, though the common black mustard 
(Sinapis nigra) of our fields, here actually affords shelter to the 
smaller warblers, so that the " birds of the air lodge in the branches 
thereof." Once more, it is recorded in the second Book of Kings 
(c. iv., v. 38-40), that Elisha "came to Gilgal," on the plains of 
Jordan, near the Dead Sea, and that a servant, catering for the sons 
of the prophets who accompanied him, " went out into the fields . . . 
and gathered of wild gourds his lap full" — which, but for the 
miraculous interference of the prophet, would have proved poisonous. 
There seems no room for doubt that these wild gourds were the fruit 
of the colocynth — a plant which inhabits only dry and sandy desert 
soil. It still grows most abundantly on the barren sands of Gilgal, 
and the only other place I have seen it was on the maritime plain 
near Jaffa. 

Mrs. Zeller has done well to utilize her leisure hours, which 
are not many, in illustrating so truly and faithfully the flora of her 
adopted home. Her beautifully executed drawings will confer a boon 
on those who have never visited the East, by enabling them in some 
degree to realize the beauties of its bright but fleeting spring ; she 
provides a greater treat for those who, in turning over her pages, 
recognize the favourites and companions of bygone days. 

Edward Atkinson, 

F.L.S., F.Z.8., etc. 

Leeds, 10 September, 1875. 



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LIST OF PLATES. 



Olive. Olea europcea (L.). Oelbaum. Olivier. 

Prickly Pear. Opuntiafcus indica (Mill.). Feigen Kaftus. Cierge raquette. 

Burnet. Poterium spinosum (L.). Dornige Becherblume. Pimprenelle 6pineuse. 

Anemone. Anemone coronaria (L.). Windroschen. Anemones a couronne. 

Palestine Bramble.Rubus sanctus (Schreb.) Brombeerstrauch des h. Landes. Ronce de la Terre-Sainte. 
Indian Sage. Salvia indica (L.). Indische Salbei. Sauge des Indes. 

Egyptian Thrift. Statice oegyptiaca (Thouin.). Egyptische Strandnelke. Statice d'Egypte. 

Tulip. Tulipa gesneriana (L.). Fruhbliihende Tulpe. Tulipe pr^coce. 

Palestine Scabious. Pterocephalus palaistinus (Coult.). Scabiose desh. Landes. Scabieuse de Palestine. 
Blue Lupin. Lupinus pilosus (L.). Blaue Feigbohne. Lupin bleu. 

Storax-tree. Styrax officinalis (L.). Storax-Baum. Aliboufier. 

Thistle. Tyrimnus leucographus (Cass.).Weiszrippige Distel. Chardon a nervures blanches. 

Apple of Sodom. Solanum sanctum (L.). Nachtschatten des h. Landes. Morelle de Palestine. 



Bulbous Craw's-bill. Geranium tuberosum (L.).Knolliger Storchschnabel. 
Hollyhock. Alcea lavateraflora (DC). Malve. 

Sword-flag. Gladiolus aleppicus (Boiss.). Siegwurz. 



Granatbaum. 
Windroschen. 
Graser des h. Landes. 
Scabiose des h. Landes. 
Wilde Erbse. 
Netzaderige Schwertlilie. 



Pomegranate. Punica granatum (L.). 

Pink Anemone. Anemone coronaria (L.). 

Palestine Grasses, (various). 

Palestine Scabious. Scabiosa palastina (L.). 

Wild Pea. Pisumfulvum (Smith.). 

Dwarf Iris. Iris reticulata (L.). 

Desert Spike. Eremostachys laciniata (Bunge.).Steppen Lippenblume. 

Oleander. Nerium oleander. (L.). Oleander. 

Bongardia rauwolfi (Meyer.).Rauwolf s Bongardia. 

Linum pubescens (Russell.). Wilder Flachs. 

Ricotia lunaria (L.). Nachtviolenblumige Ricotie. 

Adonis aestivalis (L.). Blutstropfen. 

Persian Cyclamen. Cyclamen persicum (L.). Orientalische Erdscheibe. 
Mallow. Malope malacoides (L.). Malve. 

{Fumaria anatolica (Boiss). 
Ceratocapnos pakestina (Boiss.). 
Periwinkle. Vinca media (Link.). Siidliches Immergriin, 



Bongardia. 
Wild Flax. 
Rock-stock. 
Pheasants eye. 



Fumitory. 



Erdrauch. 



Geranium bulbeux. 
Guimauve. 
Glayeul d'Alep. 
Grenadier. 

Anemone a couronne. 
Gramin^es de la Terre-Sainte. 
Scabieuse de Palestine. 
Pois sauvage. 
Iris naine. 

Eremostachys lacini£. 
Laurier-rose. 
Bongardia de Rauwolf. 
Lin sauvage. 
Ricotie a fleures de Lunaire. 
Adonis d'6te\ 
Cyclamen d'Alep. 
Guimauve. 

Fumeterre de Palestine. 

Pervenche. 



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XIV 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Venus* 8 Looking-glass, 

Great Quaking Grass. 

Caper or Hyssop. Capparis spinosa (L.). 

Almond. Amygdalus communis (L.). 

Prickly Broom. Calycotome spinosa (Link). 

Persian Iris. Iris susiana (L.). 



Specularia pentagonia (DC). Venus- Spiegel. 
Briza maxima (L.). Grosses Zittergras. 

Cappernstaude. 

Mandelbaum. 

Stech-Ginster. 

Susianische Schwertlilie. 



Milk Vetch. 



Astragalus tubercutosus(DC. ) .Traganth- Stande. 



Sp^culaire. 
Brize grande. 
Caprier. 
Amandier. 
Genet epineux. 
Iris de Snze. 
Astragale. 



Oriental Bear's Breach. Acanthus dioscoridis (L.). Orientalische-Barenclaue. Acanthe d' Orient. 



Syrian Onosma. Onosma syriacum (DC). Syrische Lotwurz. 
Mountain Lily. Ixiolirium montanum (Herb.).Berglilie. 
Sage-leaved Rock-rose. Cistus salvifolius (L.). Salbeiblattrige Cistrose. 
Meadow Saffron. Colchicum bulbocodoides (Stev.). Kleine Zeitlose. 



Plumbago. Plumbago europaa (L.). 

Yellow Flax. Linumfiavum (L.). 
Iris. Iris tuber osa (L.), 

Yellow Orobanche. Phelippcea lutea (Desf.). 
Bugloss. Anchusa italica (Retz.). 



Orcanette de Syrie. 

Lis de montagne. 

Ciste a fenilles de Sauge. 

Colchiqne. 

Plombage d'Enrope. 

Lin jaone. 

Iris. 

Orobanche jaone. 

Bnglosse d' Italic 



Bleiwurz. 

Gelber Flachs. 

Schwertlilie. 

Gelber Kleetod. 

Ochsenznnge. 

Painted Hound? s tongue. Cynoglossum pictum (Ait.). Gemalte Hundszunge. Cynoglosse peinte. 
Malcolmia. Malcolmia crenulata (DC). Gekerbte Malcolmie. Malcolmia crenelee. 

Asiatic Ranunculus. Ranunculus asiatieus. (L.). Orientalischer Hahnenfnss. Ranoncule d'Asie. 
Syrian Speedwell. Veronica syriaca ( Roem.). Syrischer Ehrenpreis, Ve*ronique de Syrie. 

Scarlet Anemone. Anemone coronaria (L.). Windroschen. Anemone a conronne. 



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WILD FLOWERS OF THE HOLY LAND. 



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OLIVE. 

Olea europcea (L.). 



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OLEA EUROPAEA. (L.) 



Olive. 



P 



ELBAUM. 



Olivier. 



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PRICKLY PEAR. 

Opuntia ficus indica (Mill.). 



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OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA. (Mm.) 



Prickly Pear. 



Feigen-JCaktus. 



Cierge raquette. 



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BURNET.. 

Poterium spinomtm (L ). 



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POTEKIUM SPINOSUM. (L.) 



Burnet. 



Dornige Becherblume. Pimprenelle ipineuBO. 



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ANEMONE. 

Anemone corqnaria (L.). 



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ANEMONE CORONARIA. (L.) 



Anemonei. 



fi 



indr6schen. 



Anemones h. oouronne. 



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PALESTINE BRAMBLE. 

Rubus sanctus (Schreb.). 



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RUBUS SANCTUS. (Schreb.) 



Palestine Bramble. 



JDROMBEERSTRAUCH 
DES HL, L/ANDES. 



Bonce de la Terre-Sainte. 



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INDIAN SAGE. 

Salvia indica (L.). 



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ii, •"u<n<t t<"r^ift«ii*mr9 » 



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SALVIA INDICA. (L.) 



Indian Sage. 



Tndische IS 



NDISCHE Salbei. Sauge dei Indos. 



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EGYPTIAN THRIFT. 

Statice cegyptiaca (Thouin.). 



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STATICE AEGYPTIACA. (Thouin.) 



Egyptian Thrift. 



Egyptische S 



GYPTI3CHE PTRANDNELKE. 



Statico d'Egypte. 



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TULIP. 

Tulipa gemeriana (L.). 



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Tulip. 



TULIPA PRAECOX.\Tonorc.) 

Fruhbluhende Tulpe. 



Tulip© pricoce. 



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PALESTINE SCABIOUS. 

Pterocephalus palcestinus (Coult.). 



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■ ''LM 




PTEROCEPHALUS PALAESTINDS. (Coult) 



Palestine Scabious. Scabiose DBS Hl. Landes. Scabieuse de Palestine. 



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BLUE LUPIN. 

Lupmtis pilosu8 (L.). 



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LUPINUS PILOSUS. (L.) 



Bine Lupin. 



J3laue Fj 



LAUE fEIGBOHNE. 



Lnpin blon. 



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STORAX-TREE. 

Sty rax officinalis (L.). 



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^ 



) 



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STYRAX OFFICINALIS. (L.) 



Storax-tree. 



Storax-Baum. 



Aliboufier 

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THISTLE. 

Tyrimnus leucographus (Cass.). 



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TYRIMNUS LEUCOGRAPHUS. (Cass.) 



Thistle. 



Weissrippige Distel. Ohardon & nervures blanches. 



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APPLE OF SODOM. 

Solatium sanctum (L.). 



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SOLANUM SANCTUM. (L.) 



Apple of Sodom. 



Nachtschatten 
des hl, landes. 



Horelle de Palestine. 



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• 



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BULBOUS CRAWS-BILL. 

Geranium tuberosum (L.). 



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> 




GERANIUM TUBEROSUM. (L.) 



Knolliger S 



Bullous Graw'ibill. Knolliger Storchschnabel. Siranium bulbeux. 



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1 



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HOLLYHOCK. 

% 

Alcea lavateraflora (D.C.). 



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ALCEA LAVATERAEFLORA. (DC.) 



Hollyhock. 



JAalve. 



Qnimanvo. 



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1 



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SWORD-FLAG. 

Gladiolus aleppicus (Boiss.). 



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GLADIOLUS ALEPPICUS. (Boiss.) 



Sword-flag. 



P 



IEGWURZ. 



Glayeul d'Alep. 



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POMEGRANATE. 

Punica granatum (L.). 



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PUNICA WMTUM. (L.) 



Posngranate. 



P 



RANATBAUM. 



Grenadier. 



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PINK ANEMONE. 

Anemone coronaria (L.). 



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ANEMONE CORONARIA. (L.) 



Fink Anemone. 



f 



indr6schen. 



An6xnone & oonronne. 



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PALESTINE GRASSES. 

(Various J 



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pRA 



RASER DES HL. UANDES 



V' 



Palestine Grass. 



Graminles de la Terre-Sainte. 



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PALESTINE SCABIOUS. 

Scabiosa palcestina (L.). 



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j 




SCABIOSA PALAESTINA. (L.) 



Palestine Soabioui. 



i 3 ' 



h 



CABIOSE e>es HL. Landes. Soabieuse do Palestine. 



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WILD PEA. 

Pisumjulmm (Smith). 



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PISUM FULVUM. (Smith.) 



Wild Pea. 



Wilde Erbse. 



Pols sanvage. 



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1 



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DWARF IRIS. 

Iris reticulata (L.). 



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1 



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IRIS RETICULATA. (L.) 



Swarf Iris. 



I* 



ETZADERIGE pCHWERTLILIE. 



Iris naine. 



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1 



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DESERT SPIKE. 

Eremostachys laciniata (Bunge.). 



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1 



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*~Jr 




EREMOSTACHYS LACINIATA. (Bunge.) 



Desert Spike. 



Steppen-Lippenblume. EremoBtaohyB laoinii. 



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W4W/ 



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OLEANDER. 

Nerium oleander (L.). 



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\ 




NERIUM OLEANDER. (L.) 



Oleander. 



Oleander. 



Laurier-rose. 



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Googfe 



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BONGARDIA. 

Bongardia rauwolfi (Meyer.). 



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BONGARDIA RAUWOLFU. (Meyer.) 



Bongardia. 



Rauwclf's Bongardia. Bongardia do Bauwolf. 



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i 






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WILD FLAX. 

Jjinum pubescem (Russell.). 



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--«V 










;#* 



Si 



.< \ 



LINUM PUBESCENS. (Russell.) 



Wild Pl»x. 



F 



ILDER fLACHS. 



Lin iatnrage. 



Digitized by 



GoosU 



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A \ 



LINDM PUBESCENS. (Russell.) 



Wild Flax. 



Wilder F: 



ILDER fLACHS. 



Lin lanvage. 



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1 



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ROCK-STOCK. 

Ricotia lunaria (L.). 



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I 



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RICOTIA LUNAEIA. (L.) 



Book- Stock. 



Nachtyiolenblumige Ricotie. Riootie i flexures de Lunaire. 



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PHEASANT'S EYE. 

Adonis (BstivaliB (L.). 



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ADONIS AESTIVALIS. (L.) 



Pheasant's eye. 



f 



LUTSTROPFEN. 



Adonis d'««. 



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PERSIAN CYCLAMEN. 

Cyclamen persicum (L.). 



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CYCLAMEN ALEPPICIM. (Ait.) 



Persian Oyolamen. Orientalische Erdscheibe. Oyolamen d'Alep. 



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MALLOW. 

Malope malacoides (L.). 



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MALOPE MALAC01DES. (L.) 



Hallow. 



JAalve. 



Guimauve. 



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FUMITOKY. 

Fumaria cmatolica (Boiss.). Ceratocapnos paUestina (Boiss.). 



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FUMARIA ANATOLICA. (Boiss.) 
CERATOCAPNOS PALAESTIKA. (Boiss.) 



Fumitory. 



pRDRAUCH. 



Fumeterre de Palestine. 



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PERIWINKLE. 

Tinea media (Link.). 



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V1NCA MEDIA. (Link.) 



Periwinkle. 



Sudliches 1. 



UDLICHES MMERGRUN. 



Fervenche. 



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YENUS'S LOOKING-GLASS. 

Specularia pentagonia (DC). 



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SPECULARIA PENTAGONIA. (DC.) 



Venue's looking-glass. Venus-Spiegel. 



Spiculaire. 
Digitized by LjOOQIC 



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GREAT QUAKING GRASS. 

Briza maxima (L.). 



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BRIZA MAXIMA. (L.) 



Great Quaking Grass. 



Grosses Z 



ROSSES ZlTTERGRAS. 



Brize grand*. 



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CAPER OR HYSSOP. 

Capparis spinosa (L.). 



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CAPPARIS SPINOSA. (L.) 



Caper or Hysicp. 



P 



APPERNSTAUDE. 



Caprier. 



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ALMOND. 

Arnygdalus communis (L.). 



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AMYGDALUS COMMUNIS. (L.) 



Almond. 



yVlANDELBAUM. 



Amandier. 



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PRICKLY BROOM. 

Calycotomespinosa (Link ). 



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CALYCOTOME SP1NOSA. (Link.) 



Prickly Broom. 



Stech-Ginster. 



Gen8t Spineux. 



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PERSIAN IRIS. 

Iris 8usiana (L.). 



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IRIS SUSIANA. (L.) 



Persian Iris. 



SUSIANISCHE ScHWERTLILIE. 



Iris de Snze. 



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MILK VETCH. 

Astragalus tuberculoses (DC). 



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ASTRAGALUS TUBERCULOSUS. (DC.) 



Milk Vetch. 



Traganth - S 



RAGANTH - OTAUDE. 



Astragal©. 



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?i?r^ 1 - 



P 1 !' u 



I 






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ORIENTAL BEAR'S BREACH. 

Acanthus dioscoridis (L.). 



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ACANTHUS DIOSCORIDIS. (L.) 



Oriental Bear's Breach. Orientalische Earenklaue. Acantho d'Orient. 



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SYRIAN ONOSMA. 

Onosma syriacum (DC). 



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ONOSMA SYRIACUM. (DC.) 



Syrian Onosma. 



Syrische L 



YRISCHE LOTWURZ. 



Orcanette de Syrie. 



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MOUNTAIN LILY. 

Ixiolirwm, montanum (Herb.). 



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Mountain Lily. 



1XIOLIRIUM MONTANUM. (Herb.) 

J 3 ' 



)ERGLIL1E. 



Lis de montagne. 



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1 



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SAGE-LEAVED KOCK-KOSE. 

Cistus 8alvifoliu8 (L.). 



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1 



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CISTUS SALVIFOLIUS. (L.) 



Sage-leaved Bock-rose. Salbeiblattrige Cistrose. Ciate i fenillcs de Sauge. 



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j 



MEADOW SAFFRON. 

Colchicum bulbocodoides (Stev.). 



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COLCHICUM BULBOCODIOIDES. (Stev.) 



Meadow Saffron. 



Kleine Z 



LEINE £EITLOSE. 



Oolchique. 



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PLUMBAGO. 

Plumbago europcea (L.). 



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PLUMBAGO EUROPAEA. (X.) 



Plumbago. 



? 



LEIWURZ. 



Plumbage d'Europe. 
Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



YELLOW FLAX. 

Linwm flavum (L.). 



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LINUM FLAVUM. (L.) 



Yellow flax. 



pELBER Fj 



ELBER fLACHS. 



Lin jaune. 



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IRIS. 

Iris tuberosa (L.). 



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IRIS. 



Iris. 



z 5 



CHWERTLILIE. 



Iris. 



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YELLOW OROBANCHE. 

Phelippcea lutea (D6sf.). 



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• 




PHEL1PAEA LUTEA. (Dfcf.) 



Yellow Orobanche. 



Gelber K 



ELBER f\LEETOD. 



Orobanche jaune. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



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BUGLOSS. 

Anchu&a italica (Retz.). 



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ANCHUSA ITAL1CA. (Retz.) 



Buglo«B. 



p 



CHSENZUNGE. 



BuglosBO d'ltalie. 



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PAINTED HOUND'S TONGUE. 

Cynoglossum pictum (Ait.). 



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CYNOGLOSSUM PICTUM. (Ait.) 



Fainted Hound's tongue. Gemalte Mundszunge. Cynoglo*ae pinto. 



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MALCOLMIA. 

Malcolmia crenulata (DC). 



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MALCOLMIA CRENULATA. (DC.) 



Kaloolmia. Gekerbte ^/Lalcolmie. 



Kalcolmia crfinelie. 



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ASIATIC RANUNCULUS. 

Ranunculus asiaticus (L.). 



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RANUNCULUS ASIATICUS. CM 



P 



Asiatio Banunculas. Drientalischer Hahnenfuss. Eenoncule d'iUie 



jh 



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SYRIAN SPEEDWELL. 

Veronica syriaca (Roem.). 



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VERONICA SYRIACA. (Roem.) 



8yrian Speedwell. Syrischer Ehrenpreis. Verenique ie Eyrie. 



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SCARLET ANEMONE. 

Anemone coronaria (L.). 



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A-y- 



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AKEMONE CORONARIA. CL-.1 
Scarlet Anemone. Windroschen. Animone I c 



fl 



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3 2044 102 803145 



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